Grant, Neil. Everyday Life of the Vikings. North Mankato, MN: Smart Apple Media, 2006.
Donovan, Frank R. The Vikings. New York: American Heritage Publishing Co.,Inc, 1964.
Graham, James. The Viking World. Frances Lincoln Publishers Limited, 1980.
Wingate, Philippa . The Viking World. Tulsa: EDC Publishing, n.d.
The Vikings were known in the Dark Ages as quick criminals who pillaged and then disappeared (Donovan 7), while that may be true and widely discussed, their tactics and astounding ship maneuvering remains unspoken of. Scientists and archeologists have discovered well conserved ships in burial mounds and five ships were excavated in Denmark (Wingate 3). This discovery helped researchers in visually rebuilding the structures of the ships and opening up a whole new light to the Viking invasions and warfare. While these dedicated and fierce Pagans could easily plunder whatever village set before them, they would be half the warriors without their ships and use of the sea.
It is said that the Vikings were the men who discovered America, conquered most of Western Europe (800-1100), and founded the first royal house of Russia (Donovan 7). When the “Viking Era” began, the men were thought of as primitive with a pagan vivacity, with extraordinary native ships and a hunger for the riches (Donovan 7). Afterwards they became virtuous Christians as well as law-abiding Europeans, though their spirit was known as “a willingness to fight lustily without fear of death (Donovan 7). A favored tactic of the Vikings was to “feign a disorganized retreat in order to draw opponents out of formation, then rapidly regroup and turn on their pursuers” (Donovan 23).
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